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Reproducibility of shear wave elastography between operators, machines and probes in an elasticity phantom عبدالرحمن محمد الفريح

Purpose:
To investigate the reproducibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) among operators, machines and probes in a phantom. Moreover, to evaluate the effect of depth and the accuracy of the embedded inclusions.


Methods:
In-vitro stiffness measurements of six inclusions (10kPa, 40kPa and 60kPa) embedded at two depths (1.5cm and 5cm) in an elastography phantom. The measurements obtained by two sonographers using two ultrasound machines; the SuperSonic Imagine Aixplorer using the XC6-1, SL10-2 and SL18-5 probes, and the General Electric LOGIQ E9 using the 9L-D probe. The variability was evaluated using the coefficient of variation. The reproducibility was calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).


Results:
For shallow inclusions, low variability was observed between the results obtained by each operator (range 0.9%–5.4%). However, the variability increased significantly in the deeper inclusions (range 2.4–80.8%). The measurement difference between the operators was 1%–15% in superficial inclusions and 3%–43% in deep inclusions. The inter-operator reproducibility was almost perfect (ICC>0.90). The measurement difference between the machines was 0–15% in superficial inclusions and 38.6%–82.9% in deep inclusions. In superficial inclusions, there was an excellent reproducibility between the three probes (ICC>0.97). On average, the means of the 10 kPa inclusions’ stiffness were overestimated by 16%, while those at 40 kPa and 60 kPa were underestimated by 42% and 48%, respectively.


Conclusion:
Phantom SWE measurements were reproducible between operators, machines and probes at superficial depths only. SWE measurements acquired in deep regions should not be used interchangeably between operators, machines or probes.

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Muscle stiffness in rheumatoid arthritis is not altered or associated with muscle weakness: A shear wave elastography study عبدالرحمن محمد الفريح

Objectives: 
To investigate muscle stiffness and strength in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to healthy controls.

Methods: 
A sample of 80 RA patients from three discrete groups: 1 – newly diagnosed treatment-naïve RA (n = 29), 2 – active RA for at least 1 year (n = 18) and 3 – in remission RA for at least 1 year (n = 33), was compared to 40 healthy controls. Shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured using shear wave elastography as a surrogate for tissue stiffness in multiple muscles. All participants performed isometric grip strength, timed get-up-and-go test, 30-s chair stand test and isokinetic knee extension/flexion (60°/s). The difference in SWV amongst the groups was tested using one-way ANOVA, and the correlation between SWV and muscle strength results were calculated using Pearson’s coefficients.

Results: 
The mean age ± SD was 61.2 ± 12.8 for RA patients and 61.5 ± 10.5 years for controls. SWV was not significantly different amongst the groups on all muscles (p > .05). In comparison to controls, the new and active RA groups showed a significantly lower isokinetic strength by –29% (p = .013) and –28% (p = .040), fewer chair stands by –28% (p = .001) and –44% (p ...

Reduction in stiffness of proximal leg muscles during the first 6 months of glucocorticoid therapy for giant cell arteritis: A pilot study using shear wave elastography عبدالرحمن محمد الفريح
Aim

To investigate muscle stiffness changes in patients treated for giant cell arteritis (GCA) with high‐dose oral glucocorticoids.

Methods

Using ultrasound elastography, shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured in the quadriceps, hamstrings and biceps brachii muscles of 14 patients with GCA (4 male, mean age ± SD, 68.2 ± 4.3 years) within the first 2 weeks of initiating glucocorticoid treatment (baseline) and repeated after 3 and 6 months treatment. Muscle strength and performance tests were performed at each visit. Baseline measures were compared with those from 14 healthy controls. Linear mixed models were used to test for change in patient measures over time.

Results

At baseline, muscle SWV in patients was not significantly different from controls. With glucocorticoid treatment, there was a reduction in SWV in the leg but not the arm muscles. SWV decreased by a mean of 14% (range 8.3%‐17.3%; P  = .001) after 3 months and 18% (range 10.2%‐25.3%; P  ...

Staphylococci, catecholamine inotropes and hospital-acquired infections نورا حمد الضعيان

Patients in hospital intensive care units have long been recognized as being at high risk for developing infections from bacteria, fungi, and viruses from within the hospital locality. Risk factors for development of nosocomial infections have usually focussed on the patient’s physical condition and the number and type of invasive medical procedures administered. Using the staphylococci as its focus, this chapter presents recent evidence that some of the medications routinely used in the treatment of acutely ill patients may also be a risk factor for the development of nosocomial infections.

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The Iron Biology Status of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients May Be a Risk Factor for Development of Infectious Peritonitis نورا حمد الضعيان
Background: Infectious peritonitis is a clinically important condition contributing to the significant mortality and morbidity rates observed in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Although some of the socioeconomic risk factors for PD-associated peritonitis have been identified, it is still unclear why certain patients are more susceptible than others to infection. Methods: We examined the molecular components of human peritoneal dialysate (HPD) in an attempt to identify factors that might increase patient susceptibility to infection. Characterization studies were performed on initial and follow-up dialysate samples collected from 9 renal failure patients on PD. Results: Our in vitro data showed that peritonitis-causing bacteria grew differently in the patient dialysates. Proteomic analysis identified an association between transferrin presence and infection risk, as peritoneal transferrin was discovered to be iron-saturated, which was ...
Assessment of Coliform Pathogenic Bacteria in Tank Drinking and Tap Water in Different Areas in Al-kharj and Its Villages Affiliate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia عبير عبدالله بابكر
15 Water is one of the most abundant and essential commodities of man occupying about 70% of the earth’s surface and 60% of the human body therefore it should be continuously protected against microbial infections. Tank drinking water and tap water from different water resources such as wells and tanks should be free from contamination with waterborne pathogens including bacteria. In this study, samples of both drinking and tap water were collected from different regions of Al-Kharj and its villages affiliate (Al-kharj,Al-hayathem ,Al-delam, Al-rfaya,Al-hawta), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aim to determine the presence of coliform pathogenic bacteria in tap water and tank drinking water. Methods: Both water samples were tested for the presence of coliform pathogenic bacteria and this was determined by centrifugation technique. In addition, bacterial isolates were identified by phoenix 100 BD company automated identification and sensitivity machine. Finally, bacterial count dilution technique was used to count the bacterial content in the water samples used in our study. Results: It was found that there is no bacterial contamination in tank drinking water. Otherwise, there’s no contamination with coliforms bacteria in all samples, but the tap water samples were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. It was also shown that the bacterial isolates found in tap water including pseudomonas aerruginosa, pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter iwoffi and Moraxella species. In tap water of (Al-kharj,Al-hayathem ,Al-delam, Al-rfaya,Al-hawta) Conclusion: Thus water considered to be consumed by humans must maintain good microbial qualities within the acceptable ranges and must undergo effective treatment in...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT'S EXTRACTS AGAINST MRSA عبير عبدالله بابكر

Abstract

             This study is applied to determine the effectiveness of some plants extracts against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA by in vitro disc diffusion method to find potential antimicrobial effect of some plant of some plants that used and to cure infectious disease in herbal and traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia. MRSA is specific strain of Staphylococcus aureus,  it causes  the same diseases' symptoms seen in other staph infections, but the MRSA strain is resistant to treatment with commonly used antibiotics. krameriaceae (Khawajoawa)    Melaleuca  alternifolia  (Tea tree oil),  and Acacia nilotica (Garad),  are plants, believed by herbalists to have antimicrobial effect. These plants have been tested in the present study to investigate their in vitro potential antimicrobial effects against MRSA. First the plants were extracted, the polar compounds of Rhatany krameriaceae was extracted with ethanol Show narrow inhibition zone of 19mm,  the polar compounds of Acasia nilotica was extracted by distilled water Show inhibition zone of 24mm, The commercial product of tea tree oil extract use as non-polar compounds of  Melaleuca  alternifolia  (Tea tree oil), show large inhibition zone 48mm, the extracts were tested by the filter paper disc method.

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Staphylococci, Catecholamine Inotropes and Hospital-Acquired Infections نورا حمد الضعيان

The development of the field of microbial endocrinology has now spanned 23 years from the time I first proposed its creation in 1992 (Lyte 1992; Lyte and Ernst 1992). During that time, this interdisciplinary field has experienced two of the characteris- tics of a typical microbial growth curve: a long lag phase during which acceptance of articles was problematic to say the least, followed by an early log phase of growth characterized by increasing awareness that the intersection of microbiology, endo- crinology and neurophysiology offers a unique way to understand the mechanisms underlying health and disease. This book, I am happy to report, comes at the start of that early log phase with the possibilities for future rapid growth. 

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Evaluation of Total Oxidative Stress, Total Antioxidant Capacity Along with Selenium and Vitamin E Level among Saudi Women Experiencing Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage and Intrauterine Foetal Death نورا حمد الضعيان

Introduction: Oxidative stress is integrated with declined female fertility. Our modern sedentary life style and exposure to toxins make vulnerable to body to increased amount of oxidative stress and lead to higher oxidative damage to DNA and may affect ova, sperm or the development of the embryo, leading to infertility, miscarriage and congenital defects. In the present study our aim was to assess the concentration of total oxidative stress, total antioxidant capacity, selenium and vitamin E level in women suffering from recurrent spontaneous miscarriage and intra uterine foetal death and compare levels with normal pregnant women. 

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Early detection of breast cancer using DC bio-impedance technique سفيان محمد الحبيب منصوري

Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women around the world. Studies confirm that early-stage cancer detection can lead to better healing. This research project aims to offer a system for early detection of women breast cancer based on the technique of DC electric bio-impedance

Mammography remains the essential technique for breast exploration, the most successful in terms of monitoring and early detection of breast cancer. Unfortunately, it is an invasive, expensive method and women do not go directly for screening. Thus, we propose in this research project to design a smart mammograph for early diagnosis of breast cancer using electrical bio-impedance

Electrical bio-impedance has a high diagnostic potential for various diseases. Indeed, an impedance value different from the normal can inform us about a physiological abnormality of the individual

Indeed, this research project offers a non-invasive system that allows to simultaneously measuring the impedances of the two breasts of a patient, to compare the result and if there is a significant difference, it means that there is a problem in one of the breasts. Once the system finalized, we will carry out an impedance measurement campaign of healthy women and women with cancer to establish a meaningful database and offer a real-time automatic screening system

This research project is only the first phase. The second phase will focus on increasing the number of electrodes to precisely locate the tumor, create an image and transmit it to a smartphone

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